Best Practice: Should Not Block Threads

When you have a choice, you should never block. For example, don’t do this:

def fetchSomething: Future[String] = ???

// later ...
val result = Await.result(fetchSomething, Duration.Inf)

Prefer keeping the context of that Future all the way, until the edges of your program:

def fetchSomething: Future[String] = ???

PRO-TIP: for Scala’s Future, checkout the Scala-Async project to make this easier.

REASON: blocking threads is error prone because you have to know and control the configuration of the underlying thread-pool. For example even Scala’s has an upper limit to the number of threads spawned, which means that you can end up in a dead-lock, because all of your threads can end up blocked, with no threads available in the pool to finish the required callbacks.

If blocking, specify explicit timeouts

If you have to block, specify explicit timeouts for failure and never use APIs that block on some result and that don’t have explicit timeouts.

For example Scala’s own Await.result is very well behaved ands that’s good:

Await.result(future, 3.seconds)

But for example when using Java’s Future, never do this:

val future: java.util.concurrent.Future[T] = ???


Instead always specify timeouts, because in case the underlying thread-pool is limited and there are no more threads left, at least some of them will get unblocked after the specified timespan:

val future: java.util.concurrent.Future[T] = ???

future.get(TimeUnit.SECONDS, 3)

If blocking, use Scala’s BlockContext

This includes all blocking I/O, including SQL queries. Real sample:

Future {
  DB.withConnection { implicit connection =>
    val query = SQL("select * from bar")

Blocking calls are error-prone because one has to be aware of exactly what thread-pool gets affected and given the default configuration of the backend app, this can lead to non-deterministic dead-locks. It’s a bug waiting to happen in production.

Here’s a simplified example demonstrating the issue for didactic purposes:

implicit val ec = ExecutionContext

def addOne(x: Int) = Future(x + 1)

def multiply(x: Int, y: Int) = Future {
  val a = addOne(x)
  val b = addOne(y)
  val result = for (r1 <- a; r2 <- b) yield r1 * r2

  // This can dead-lock due to the limited size 
  // of our thread-pool!
  Await.result(result, Duration.Inf)

This sample is simplified to make the effect deterministic, but all thread-pools configured with upper bounds will sooner or later be affected by this.

Blocking calls have to be marked with a blocking call that signals to the BlockContext a blocking operation. It’s a very neat mechanism in Scala that lets the ExecutionContext know that a blocking operation happens, such that the ExecutionContext can decide what to do about it, such as adding more threads to the thread-pool (which is what Scala’s ForkJoin thread-pool does).

WARNING: Scala’s is backed by a cool ForkJoinPool implementation that has an absolute maximum number of threads limit. What this means is that, in spite of well behaved code, you can still hit that limit and you can still end up in a dead-lock. This is why blocking threads is error prone, as nothing saves you from knowing and controlling the thread-pools that you end up blocking.

If blocking, use a separate thread-pool for blocking I/O

If you’re doing a lot of blocking I/O (e.g. a lot of calls to JDBC), it’s better to create a second thread-pool / execution context and execute all blocking calls on that, leaving the application’s thread-pool to deal with CPU-bound stuff.

So you could initialize another I/O related thread-pool like so:

import java.util.concurrent.Executors

// ...
private val io = Executors.newCachedThreadPool(
  new ThreadFactory {
    private val counter = new AtomicLong(0L)

    def newThread(r: Runnable) = {
      val th = new Thread(r)
      th.setName("io-thread-" +

Note that here I prefer to use an unbounded “cached thread-pool”, so it doesn’t have a limit. When doing blocking I/O the idea is that you’ve got to have enough threads that you can block. But if unbounded is too much, depending on use-case, you can later fine-tune it, the idea with this sample being that you get the ball rolling.

You could also use Monix’s of course, which is also backed by a “cached thread-pool”:

import monix.execution.Scheduler

private val io ="engine-io")

And then you could provide a helper, like:

def executeBlockingIO[T](cb: => T): Future[T] = {
  val p = Promise[T]()

  io.execute(new Runnable {
    def run() = try {
    catch {
      case NonFatal(ex) =>
        logger.error(s"Uncaught I/O exception", ex)